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Outline For Childhood Obesity Essay

Research Paper on Obesity

How to start a research paper on childhood obesity

Childhood obesity is one of the most-researched health issues because of its prevalence all over the world. Researching this topic, many students are unsure of how to write a research paper in an organized manner. After a writer has chosen the general topic of childhood obesity, the next step is narrowing it down further for a coherent paper. Here are some tips on how to find specific topics as well as sample outlines, thesis, and introduction.

Tips on how to start

To create a good research paper, the author must be aware of the following dos and don’ts. Do use scholarly resources only to ensure the validity and reliability of the references. In general, access databases of peer-reviewed journals, which usually have the most credible articles. If using sources that can be found online, select websites which end with .gov or .edu as they are typically backed up by research and/or logic.

Do not use invalid sources such as those found in non-academic blogs and the like as they will discredit the value of the arguments. Furthermore, assess the soundness of the references before relying on them. Check their references if they are credible as well as the logic of their arguments. After choosing several sources, type the topic “childhood obesity” in the database and scan the articles. Look for a narrower topic and focus on it. Choose a specific topic that is personally interesting for the writing process to be motivated and not merely about making the grade. Likewise, consider the required number of pages as this will affect the scope of the study. After deciding on the specific research focus, search for more articles about the subtopic and create an annotated bibliography to summarize initial findings and synthesize information later on. Write a detailed outline and fill out the information including references.

Example of an outline

Below is an example of an outline on childhood obesity.

I. Introduction
A. Prevalence of childhood obesity in the country.
B. Why is it urgent to address childhood obesity? What are its health risks?
C. Research question: What are the causes and how can parents address them?
II. Causes of Childhood Obesity
A. Genetics.
B. Poor diet.
C. Low physical activity.
D. Psychological factors.
E. Government and school policies that affect a child’s diet and physical activity.
F. Parental factors.
III. Effects of Childhood Obesity
A. Physical.
B. Social.
C. Psychological.
IV. Resolutions to Childhood Obesity at Parental Levels
A. Motivate healthy eating.
B. Model healthy living.
C. Increase physical activity.
D. Lobby for school and government policies that promote healthy eating and exercise.
V. Conclusion

Example of a thesis

Childhood obesity has potential biological and social causes, and parents should strive to respond to as many factors in order to reduce its negative effects on their children. Family adults have the power of changing the lives of their children and they should do so by being rightful role models of good health and encourage physical activity. At the same time, they can advocate for policies that encourage eating natural food and exercise. Hence, parents have vital functions to play in both preventing and resolving childhood obesity and must be proactive so that it can be stopped in their very own homes.

Example of a childhood obesity research paper introduction

The introduction has the following basic components. It should state the purpose of the research as well as the thesis. It should also describe how the student intends to approach the topic. Below is an example of an introduction:

Childhood obesity is one of the most significant health issues of the twenty-first century. Around the world, there are around 42 million of overweight children. Parents have a significant responsibility in preventing and resolving childhood obesity. The paper attempts to understand its causes and present solutions that parents can conduct. Childhood obesity has diverse possible causes including genetics and social factors with countless adverse impacts, and in order for parents to help resolve it, they require changes in their own family as well as be supportive of health policies and initiatives.

How to write body paragraphs for a research paper on childhood obesity

Before starting writing a body notice that body writing must be organized and relevant to the thesis.

Tips on body writing

First, each body must connect back to the thesis. Second, every paragraph should begin with a topic sentence that has supporting ideas or arguments. Third, all sentences must flow in a systematic manner with the right transition signals, such as the words, “Subsequently” and “In connection.” Fourth, eliminate all unnecessary or unrelated information. Fifth, the last sentence should summarize the points in the paragraph and present the transition to the next idea.

Example of the 1st body paragraph

Here is a sample of the first body paragraph using the outline:

Childhood obesity has complex and numerous causes. Genetics can make one prone to obesity. Besides genetics, a poor diet filled with sugary, fried food can increase body mass. Lack of physical activity can produce fatty tissues as well. Other factors that contribute to obesity are psychological elements, policies, and parents.

Example of the 2nd body paragraph

The second paragraph focuses on the effects of childhood obesity. Underneath is a
sample:

Several consequences result from childhood obesity. Physically, obese children are prone to medical conditions when they grow older such as fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, among others. Socially, obese children can experience bullying and stigma. They may have problems making friends and become dissatisfied at school and life in general. Psychologically, children with obesity could suffer from low self-esteem as well as depression.

Example of the 3rd body paragraph

The third paragraph focuses on solutions at household levels:

First, parents should motivate healthy living by discussing the benefits of natural food versus the disadvantages of fast food. Second, adults must be models of clean living by preparing and consuming foods high in protein or vitamins and minerals. Third, family members should exercise together such as walk an hour or more each day or engage in regular sports for at least 30 minutes. Fourth, voting members must lobby for school and government policies that promote healthy eating and exercise.

How to finish a research paper: Tips on conclusion writing

The concluding paragraph finishes the frame of the research arguments. It can start with a
restated thesis. Next, it must sum up the whole essay. Also, the author should consider contextualizing the research in a broader scope to boost its relevance to the readers. Likewise, avoid introducing new topics at this point to prevent confusing readers. Furthermore, the conclusion should end with the feeling of completion or a call to action. It must have a positive note instead of a depressing sentiment.

Example of conclusion

Childhood obesity has potential biological and social causes, and parents should strive to respond to as many factors in order to reduce its negative effects on their children. Family adults have the power of changing the lives of their children and they should do so by being rightful role models of good health and encourage physical activity. At the same time, they can advocate for policies that encourage eating natural food and exercise. Hence, parents have vital functions to play in both preventing and resolving childhood obesity and must be proactive so that it can be stopped in their very own homes.

Tips on research paper revision

Revision is the last stage of research writing before submitting the final draft to your professor and for a thorough revision, here are the following tips. Remember that revising entails thinking deeply about the soundness of ideas, refining arguments, changing the order or content of paragraphs to make the flow better, and rewording awkward sentences.

First, revise early. Avoid revising at the last minute as this will result in missing problems in your paper, such as incorrect spelling and grammar. Second, have breaks during revision. After revising, take an hour or even possible, a day or two, in order to have fresh eyes that are more accurate in detecting writing weaknesses. Third, read your paper out loud as this is effective in determining unclear or awkward writing. Fourth, focus on proofreading first and remove grammar and usage mistakes. Fifth, read as the audience would. Detach the self from the work and read from the perspective of the reader. Is the paper persuasive and interesting? Is there something else that can be one for it to be better? Sixth, have another person read it and respond to feedback. Seventh, apply changes, take a rest for a day or a few days if time permits, read the paper again, and do final proofreading and editing for writing problems.

Example of revision for the 1st body paragraph

Childhood obesity has numerous, possibly interconnected internal and external causes. Genetics can make a person prone to obesity as the DNA itself may have specific markers that increase the body’s ability to retain adipose tissues. Biological factors can make a huge difference between someone who gets fat easily and another who eats anything without gaining a pound. Besides genetics, a poor diet filled with sugary, fried food can increase body mass. Lack of physical activity can result in the accumulation of fatty tissues as well. Other factors that contribute to obesity are psychological elements, policies, and parents. They can interact and raise obesity risks, such as when a policy allows fast food inside schools, thereby encouraging eating fried foods and boosting the prevalence of obesity.

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Childhood Obesity & Its Effects


Childhood obesity is one of the most worrying conditions faced by children during their early life stages. As in the 21st century, childhood obesity remains as one of the most serious public health challenges. This condition is global as it affects different people from different geographical regions. In addition, it steadily affects people living in low and medium income countries (Cameron, 2006). Within the past few years, the rate at which the social condition is rising has raised a lot of concerns from different people. Studies show that the obese and overweight children are at high possibilities of remaining under this condition even their adult life. This implies that it is a serious condition that requires a lot of attention.

Obesity, as a health condition, not only affects how we look but also changes the course of people’s lives negatively. Obese and overweight conditions link directly with other communicable diseases such as diabetes and cardiac malfunctions at a younger age. Severe cases of childhood obesity place the victim at higher risks of death of the individual during adulthood (Cameron, 2006). Like any other disease and conditions, obese and overweight conditions can be prevented. In order to deal with cardiac and diabetes, childhood obesity needs to be dealt with during its initial stages.

Childhood obesity is a condition linked to several causative factors. These factors range as from societal factors to diet trends of the child. Childhood obesity results from energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories generated by the body. Increase in cases of childhood obesity in the globe can be associated with the change in global trends. Diet shift in the globe can be linked to the calorie imbalance in the child’s body. Childhood obesity can be caused by several factors. There is no single factor that can be directed as the causative of childhood obesity.

However, childhood obesity can be influenced by lifestyle, environment and genetic factors that integrate leafing to childhood obesity (Cameron, 2006). Some of the common issues that lead to childhood obesity include an increase in portion size of the foods eaten when away from home. Poor nutrition, described by eating habits also plays a role in causing childhood obesity. Poor nutrition incorporates intake of foods with high levels of calories while having minimal nutritional values. Choices made on foods influence health status of the consumer.

This is a qualitative analysis of the foods consumed. On the other hand, while considering the quantity of foods consumed by people, large quantities of foods also have an impact on the health status of the people. This implies that eating out in high quantities (unhealthy consumption of foods and beverages) is a contributing factor towards obesity conditions among children. Lastly, social factors also play a role in childhood obesity. These conditions include transport movements, playing habits and as well the social setting of the child. This is a research paper that discusses poverty as a social factor playing a role in childhood obesity (Cameron, 2006).

As stated earlier, childhood obesity is a health issue that raises concern among many people. It is a condition that is not only dependent on other health status of the victim, but also influenced by the social determinants of health (Ziol-Guest, 2009). As highlighted, social determinants of health are conditions in the physical, social and economic environment where people are born, live and work that affect the health conditions of individuals.

Social environment surrounding the children includes the interaction that lies between families, friends and workers (Cameron, 2006). In addition, it also considers the interaction that lies between obesity and cultural norms and community expectations. Poverty, as one social factor used to describe the interrelationship between people contributes to childhood obesity. Poverty can be described in terms of basic needs, homelessness and as well transportation issues facing people. Poverty limits the freedom of choice of the family members. As a social factor, it incorporates the interrelationship that lies between people living within a society.

Studies show that poverty indirectly relates to obesity (Ziol-Guest, 2009). According to American heart association, research shows that the physical activities, done by both young and adults have an impact on obesity cases in US. Studies reflect that more than half of American population does not get enough physical activities that provide them with health benefits. In addition, around 24 percent of the U.S population is not active at all during their leisure time.

This implies that, in America, there is a large group that does not benefit from recreation activities during their leisure time. Researchers’ state that the physical activity during leisure time depends on the income levels of the group. This is a trend that shows that most low-income earners in America rarely engage in physical activities (Ziol-Guest, 2009). Physical activities are important among children as they engage them in burning their body calories preventing cases of calorie imbalance in their bodies. Among the poor families, children are at higher risks of suffering from obesity conditions since they are doing not engage themselves in physical activities providing them with health benefits.

Nutrition is another factor determined by income levels of people. In a school setting, children are offered with a wide variety of meals. However, the wide variety of meals is dependent on the income levels of their families. Children from poor families end up relying on a similar meal while at school (Cameron, 2006). Poor nutritional content is one characteristic of their meals. This suggests that they are at higher risk of suffering from the obesity conditions resulting from their daily meals at school.

On the other hand, poverty at their homes determines the nature of the foods that they consume. Since their households have low income levels, their meals are characterized with under nutrition which may lead to an imbalance between body calories leading to childhood obesity. Researchers state that poverty conditions in many households determines the food content that the respective families depend on thus contributing to obesity to the members (Cameron, 2006).

Ziol states that the low income during the parental years affects later life overweight. He also states that it has an impact in the childhood obesity condition through the biological pathways that prevail across the social setting of the family (Ziol-Guest, 2009). He continues with his argument regarding the interaction between poverty conditions and gender where he states that family income levels affect childhood obesity cases. He states that despite there not being clear evidence why boys are not influenced by parental income, poverty conditions places girls at higher risks of suffering from the condition. He attributes this disparity to the biological difference between boys and girls (Smith, 1999).

Recent research shows that the disparity in incomes of different people, contributes to the difference in risk prevalence of suffering from obesity. Powell states that developing nations especially African countries are at higher risks of suffering from childhood obesity than the already developed countries (Smith, 1999). This is because low income levels characterize families in these countries. This contributes to malnutrition of the children.

He states that, in these countries, children grow up surrounded by unhealthy foods while at home and school. He states that there is a likelihood of some low-income neighbors having fast-food restaurants, which are stocked, with non-nutritious foods. More so, he describes a society characterized by poor conditions where members have limited resources where they cannot afford to buy healthy foods, join health clubs and as well participate in organized sports programs.

Academic knowledge impacts the social elements and setting and institutions of both local and global communities. Academic knowledge equips people with different response measures towards childhood conditions facing many children. Braveman provides a recommendation of dealing with childhood obesity aiming at reducing the prevalence the condition (Braveman, 2009). He states that there should be an increased in consumer knowledge and awareness on the healthy nutrition and physical activities and their implications in dealing with the social concern.

He continues and states that parental knowledge should be fostered to different families to ensure that childhood obesity condition terminates. Academic knowledge has an impact to people living in different geographical and social setting. This is because it equips these people with measures required to deal with the condition and prevent childhood obesity conditions in healthy children (Braveman, 2009).

Communities living in different societies have a difference in their social settings. However, factors leading to childhood obesity are common. This implies that methods established in dealing with the condition in the different communities are common. Academic knowledge available to one society can as well be applied in another society despite the global positioning of the community. As a result, while dealing with childhood obesity, new academic knowledge can be used to deal with the health condition in the different communities. Strategies such as involvement in physical activities and health education rendered to children while at school and in other social centers, gives parents different measures of dealing with the obesity condition facing their children (Smith, 1999).

Active citizenship refers to a philosophy implemented by organizations and societies aiming at dealing with social concern within the society. It advocates the division of roles among people living within the society and as well sharing responsibilities in implementing changes in the society as the team fights the social concern (Braveman, 2009). As in the case of dealing with childhood obesity, active citizenship can be applied by educating people on the different methods used in preventing and dealing with childhood obesity. In schools, engaging students in recreation physical activities remains as another solution towards childhood obesity.

While dealing with the contemporary issues relating to childhood obesity, active citizenship will involve informing the society on the obesity cycles. Informing pregnant women on the effects of their diet trends to their new born can be used as a strategy of dealing with the cases of childhood obesity in the society (Smith, 1999). Active citizenship approaches have taken a different trend within the last few years.

The changing trend links to the changing attitudes and global approach towards diet and physical activities that people engage in during their leisure time. This implies that, within the next few years (five to ten) years, there will be a high and noticeable change in attitudes to the social concern of childhood obesity. Politics of food is active citizenship method that can be used in dealing and responding to the contemporary social issue of childhood obesity. Relating poverty with active citizenship, supporting children from low-income families can be used to deal with cases of obesity among children.

Attainment of this goal in school can be through providing quality school dinners in the school. In addition, ensuring that food offered in schools balances in terms of quantities of calories served and as well minerals can be another measure. Within the next five years, this tool will attain its main goal of dealing with childhood obesity where quality foods will be available to all students in schools regardless of their financial backgrounds.

On the other hand, pregnant mothers and parents will be equipped with the required academic and health education relating to possible causes of childhood obesity. Physical activities in schools and in the society, where children participate in healthy activities aiming at maintaining a balanced calorie level will have a positive impact in the society while dealing with the social concern of childhood obesity in the society (Braveman, 2009).

The article, “Predictors of obesity in childhood adolescence, and adulthood in a birth cohort. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 15(8), 1166–1175.” Written by Rooney, B., Mathiason, M., & Schauberger, is a significant source in this paper. The authors of this article engage the reader through making interesting claims. Claims made in the article are that there are certain characteristics and behaviors which play a critical role in contributing to obesity in offspring and young children. This study uses pregnant women tracked during their pregnant period. Observation of their behaviors and characteristics they displayed during the period up to the 10th and 15th years.

The behaviors were used to investigate the interrelationship that lies between their behaviors and their young children. The authors of this article used nearly 800 pregnant women. This source provides information pertaining behaviors displayed by the pregnant women during the gestation period. The study displayed that maternal obesity, which describes the mother’s obesity condition, is one of the greatest factor that leads to childhood obesity. Survey conducted during 2003 and 2004 across the United States also displayed similar trends in childhood obesity conditions and linked with the maternal behaviors and characteristics.

Authors used charts and tables in displaying characteristics and behavior variables and findings made from the research. This is an online article that describes the interrelationship that lies between the genetic composition and environmental factors that lead to childhood obesity. This is an article that can be used in giving academic knowledge to mothers displaying the obesity condition.

The research contained in this article is crucial in identifying and addressing childhood obesity as a societal issue and not merely a personal issue. It gives an academic analysis on the causes of childhood obesity. It is a relevant article since it equips pregnant women on the link between their behaviors and characteristics with their children. It can be used as a precaution measure article that gives pregnant women different measures of dealing with childhood obesity conditions in their children.

Another relevant article, “A cup of health with cdc: Young and fit. Podcasts at CDC. [Audio podcast].” By Gaynes, R.,can also be used to give relevant academic knowledge relating to the interrelationship between childhood obesity and social factors. These podcasts give a wide variety of downloadable digital media. From this site, different media can be downloaded to multiple mobile devices, desktop computers, or laptops.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have several podcasts on health and wellness topics to provide information. The series Young and Fit on the audio show A Cup of Health with CDC engages listeners in an interview between two doctors on childhood obesity. This podcast addresses early childhood obesity amongst low income families. It gives a clear interrelation that lies between poverty and childhood obesity.

Dr. May, who may be considered an SME, conducts research with CDC’s National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Dr. May informs the listeners that children’s weights are greatly impacted by their environment to include, day care, home, and other areas throughout the community. Several risks associated with childhood obesity as well as tips for a healthier lifestyle is provided. This podcast provides an insight into the relationship between childhood obesity and low income families. It gives academic knowledge relating to poverty and childhood obesity through the interviewing done in the podcast.

Concluding the research paper, it is quite clear that childhood obesity is a health condition that is dependent on both social conditions facing the victim and as well the diet that the individual consumes. Poverty, as one of the social factor, has a direct interrelationship with childhood obesity through the limiting conditions that it places children from low-income families. Academic knowledge available in articles and podcasts can be used by families faced by childhood obesity condition in responding to the condition.

References

Braveman P. A health disparities perspective on obesity research. Prev Chronic Dis 2009;6(3)
Ziol-Guest, K. M., G. J. Duncan, and A. Kalil. 2009. "Early Childhood Poverty and Adult Body Mass Index." American Journal of Public Health 99:527-32.
Institute of Medicine (U.S.)., Liverman, C. T., Koplan, J., Kraak, V. I., & Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2005). Preventing childhood obesity: Health in the balance. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.
Bagchi, D. (2011). Global perspectives on childhood obesity: Current status, consequences and prevention. London: Academic.
Cameron, N. (2006). Childhood obesity: Contemporary issues. Boca Raton, FL [u.a.: Taylor & Francis.
Smith, J. C. (1999). Understanding childhood obesity. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.
O'Dea, J. A., & Eriksen, M. P. (2010). Childhood obesity prevention: International research, controversies, and interventions. Oxford U.K: Oxford University Press.

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