Research Paper Chart
Charts are often used in research papers to present experimental results. Today, I will discuss how to make good looking charts for presenting research results. I will not cover everything about this topic. But I will explain some key ideas.
If you are using Excel to make charts for your research papers, one of the most common mistakes is to use the default chart style. The default style is very colorful with large lines. It is thus more appropriate for a PowerPoint presentation than a research paper. Charts appearing in research paper are most of the time printed in black and white and generally have to be small to save space. For example, below, I show a chart made with the default Excel style (left) and how I have tweaked its appearance to add it in one of my research papers.
The key modifications that I have made are:
- Data line size = 0.75 pts (looks better when printed and can see more clearly the various lines)
- Change the font size to 8 pts (enough for a research paper)
- No fill color for markers
- Marker line size = 0.75 pts
- No border line for the whole chart
- Remove the horizontal lines inside the chart area
- Everything is black and white (looks better when printed) such as axis lines, markers, data lines, etc.
Besides, it is also important to:
- Make sure that the units on each axis appear correctly.
- If necessary, change the interval of minor and major units and the minimum and maximum values for each axis so that no space is wasted and that unit labels appear correctly.
- Make sure that all axis have labels indicating the units (e.g. “Execution time (s)”).
- Make sure that the chart has a legend.
- If necessary change the number format for each axis. For example, in the previous example, I have previously changed the number format of the X axis to “0 K” in the axis options of Excel, so that numbers such as 1,000,000 appears as 1000K instead. This saves a lot of space.
Do not convert charts to bitmaps. Another common mistake is to convert charts to image files before inserting them in a Word document. Unless, you create a very high resolution image file, the printing quality will not be very good. A better solution is to directly copy the Excel chart into the Word document. If you do like that, when printing or generating a PDF of your document, the chart will be considered as vector graphics rather than as a bitmap. This will greatly enhance the appearance of your chart when it is printed.
Alternatives to Excel: A reader (Antonio) has sent me a great tutorial about using R for making charts, as an alternative to Excel. I think that it looks like a great alternative, that could also be used with LaTeX. Also, a link about how to use R in Excel (by Antonio), for those interested.
This is what I wanted to wrote for today. Obviously, more things could be said on this topic. But my goal was to highlight the importance of customizing the appearance of charts. In this post, I have shown an example. However, I recommend to look at charts from other research papers in your field to see what is the most appropriate style for your field.
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This entry was posted in General, Research and tagged chart, excel, paper, Research, writing. Bookmark the permalink.
Reproducing Figures and Tables
Reproducing happens when you copy or recreate a photo, image, chart, graph, or table that is not your original creation. If you reproduce one of these works in your assignment, you must create a note (or "caption") underneath the photo, image, chart, graph, or table to show where you found it. If you do not refer to it anywhere else in your assignment, you do not have to include the citation for this source in a Works Cited list.
Citing Information From a Photo, Image, Chart, Graph, or Table
If you refer to information from the photo, image, chart, graph, or table but do not reproduce it in your paper, create a citation both in-text and on your Works Cited list.
If the information is part of another format, for example a book, magazine article, encyclopedia, etc., cite the work it came from. For example if information came from a table in an article in National Geographic magazine, you would cite the entire magazine article.
The word figure should be abbreviated to Fig. Each figure should be assigned a figure number, starting with number 1 for the first figure used in the assignment. E.g., Fig. 1.
Images may not have a set title. If this is the case give a description of the image where you would normally put the title.